What is the minimum electrical circuit to program the STM8S microcontroller by SWIN?
I'm not sure what you want to ask for. My guesses are:
1) The minimal circuit on the programmer side, i.e. a replacement for the ST-LINK or ST-LINK/V2? I don't know.
2) The minimal circuit on the board at the SWIM pins? AFAIK none is required - having a connector is nice, but if you want to save on board costs, you could just put test hooks on the pins
3) The minimal circuit for the whole board just to be able to get the STM8 programmable via SWIM? AFAIK, two or three ceramic capacitors should do - one for the osciallator, the others on the power supply.
You might want to have a look at the rather minimalist (if you leave out the extension board) STM8S001 reference design - just 3 capacitors and some pin headers:
[STM8S001J3] Reference design for 8-pin STM8
If the STM8 device has a reset pin I would put a capacitor on it as recommended in the data sheet.
The minimal circuit for programming device via ST-LINK consist 4 wires. This is signals: GND, NRST, VDD, SWIM. But power supply environment depend on model of the device.
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