Thankyou for the additional pointers, this has given me some things to check out. It might take some time to get through it all but I hope to be able to do so soon. I'll write up a more detailed reply once I've managed to get through things.
Using the image from the earlier post I've been able to isolate the hardware issue and confirm that I had indeed managed to get flashing working on Linux, so the problem is in how I am building programs. I haven't figured out what it is yet, but I now have some leads.
I noticed that when selecting the SW4STM32 toolchain that STM32CubeMX emitted ld files, which was one thing I was missing. I am hoping that these files will also be suitable for arm-none-eabi. I haven't had a chance to check out the SW4STM32 toolchain yet, but hope to do so soon. Thankyou for the suggestion.
Re the discovery page linked: Unfortunately, I've been there, and this did not prove to be a good starting point for me personally. Whilst it does gather together a number of things that may prove to be useful in time, as a starting point it proved to be poor. The user manuals refer to resources via web links that are missing, empty, or do not actually contained the referenced resources.
The examples I expect are quite useful when you are already familiar with the platform. Personally I was looking for a simple "hello world"-style program (eg. a LED blinker) to verify that the chosen toolchain is working correctly, but there does not appear to be one, hence my posts. Google also brought up surprisingly few resources when searching on the board name for a led blinker. When essential starting resources are missing, it makes it hard for people new to a platform to begin using it.
clive1, thankyou for your recommendation of Keil and SPL, I'll give these a shot when I can. I would be keen to check out the examples you have published if you're happy to share a link.