Thanks to @Clive1, I have the serial on the STM32F030 working... but despite it sending out the serial data (verified on oscope), I'm not receiving it on com23 [STMicroelectronics STLink Virtual Com Port] using TeraTerm.
My STLink firmware is V2.J27.M15
My Port driver version is 188.8.131.52 1/3/2015 (windows 7 32 bit)
It enumerates fine, but I see no traffic despite seeing the waveform from the uC.
Can someone who has it working tell me their versions (and where to get them if known)?